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No. 56 March, 1961 




ONTARIO 



FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT REPORT 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 
FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH 

(These Reports ore lor Intra-Departmental Information and Not for Publication) 



Hon. J. W. Spooner F. A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 



W 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
No. 56 March , 196I 



Page 

Report on Opening of Duck Season on October 1, I96O in 
Lake Siiiicoe District. - by A, A. Wainio, R. H, Trotter 

and J. S. Ellis 1 

Luther Marsh Game Bag Census, October 1, I960. 

- by A. T. Cringan 7 

Summary of Fall, Spring and Summer Goose and Duck Kills, 
Patricia East, I960. - by A. Gagnon 10 

Pheasant Harvest I960 - Lake Simcoe District. 

- by J. S. Dorland 14 

Pelee Island July Survey (and Essex County) I960. 

- by L. J. Stock 20 

The Pelee Island Pheasant Shoot, I960 - Statistics and 
Discussion. - by L, J. Stock 2B 

Utilization by Moose in Winter of Twenty-five Square 
Miles of Pulpwood Cutover, Geraldton District, 1959-60. 

- by J. A. Macfie 37 

Game Inventory in the U. S. S. R. - by Anonymous 49 

A Biological Survey of Trout Lake, Kenora District, 1959 

- by B. Gibson 50 

Recapture of a Tagged Rainbow Trout from Michigan in 
Northumberland County, Iiay 23, 1959. - by K. K. Irizawa 56 

Kill^s Lake Hatchery Experiment #B Supplement - Fish 
Transportation Methods. - by N. D. Patrick 57 

(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA-DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORiMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



- 1 - 

REPORT ON OPENING OF DUCK SEASON ON^ OCTOBER 1, I960 
IN LAKE SIMCOE DISTRICT 

by 

A, Ao Wainio, Ro Ho Trotter and J. S, Ellis 

Abstract 

For the second year running personnel from various 
sections of the Department in the Lake Siracoe District 
assisted the Fish and V/ildlife Staff in covering the 
opening of the duck season in Holland Marsho All 
access points into the ^larsh were patrolledo The 
hunters were very satisfied with the coverage and proved 
very helpful in supplying information. This year in 
the Marsh 269 hunters shot 27^ ducks giving a hunter* s 
success of 1.03. The hunter's success for 1959 in the 
same area was .56. A similar complete coverage was 
carried out on opening day in Matchedash Bay. Here 
162 hunters checked had bagged 125 ducks for a hunter's 
success of ,77 ducks per hunter. In 1959 the hunter's 
success was 1.4» 



HcHand Liarsh 

For the second year running a complete coverage was carried 
out in Holland Fiarsh for the opening of duck season on October 1, 
1960» The Department recruited some of the Conservation Officers 
and many regular staff members from Parks, Timber (Reforestation) , 
County Forests and the Severn River Management Unit, Also, the 
R.C.MoP. patrolled Cook's Bay and the Lake. 

All access points into the marsh were manned. At these 
points the personnel in charge were to warn the hunters of the opening 
time of 12 noon and they were also to tr^^ and hold back the hunters from 
entering the marsh until around 11^0 a-m. The department personnel 
were at their posts at 6;;0G a.m^ Saturday morning. From these officers 
the hunters received a sheet stressing the opening time, closing time 
and daily bag limit. 

There were very few violations. The hunters were quite 
satisfied with the thorough coverage and supervision of the m.arsh. 
Many expressed the hope that it would always be like this. Those 
hunters with boats vrere permitted to bring them, into the marsh around 
9s00 aomo as long as they left their guns behind them in their cars. 

Some shooting began at lis 40 but most of it started at noon. 
There were fev/er hunters than last year, but there were enough ducks 
to go around, A great deal of shooting occurred throughout the v;hole 
miarsh for about two hours.. This barrage of firing gradually died 
dow:i with the exception of the marsh area opposite Concession 11, 
V/est Gwillimbury Township. Here there are many potholes that attract 
ducks. 



- 2 - 

Steady firing continued in this area of the marsh that produced more 
ducks than any other one areae Hunters hearing continuous firing 
from this region were streaming in from other parts of the marsh to 
take part in the shootings Quite a number of hunters left this area 
with their bag limit. 

The hunters in general were satisfied with the day-s 
hunt and were very co-operative in giving the department any necessary 
informationo They gladly allov/ed the officers to collect wingSo 

Table 3? comparing the hunting success in Holland Marsh 
for 1959 and I960 shows that the hunters had much better success in 
i960 than in 1959<. However, there were less than half the hunters 
checked in I960 than there were in 1959 • 

In i960 the officers checked 269 hunters who had shot 
27^ ducks, giving them a hunter's success of 1,03 while in 1959? 615 
hunters had shot 33^ ducks, for a hunter's success of .560 

The personnel who manned the access points were not 
all trained in the identification of ducks, let alone the aging and 
sexingo Before a completely accurate check of the ducks with respect 
to identity, age and sex can be made, the district will require some 
of their personnel to be trained in this field. For this reason 
a District collection of duck wings is being made. 

Matchedash Bay 



Waterfowl checking stations operating around Matche- 
dash Bay on the opening day of the I96O duck hunting season checked 
162 hunters who had bagged 125 ducks for a hunter success of .77 ducki 
per hunter. Although a few more hunters were checked this year 
the kill is down somewhat from the 1959 season when I46 hunters shot 
205 ducks for a hunter success of 1,4 ducks per hunter. 

Eight stations were operated around the Bay on the 
opening day to inform hunters of the noon opening hour, check law 
infractions and to obtain data on hunters success. In addition to the 
eight stations manned by Department personnel from the Branches 01 
Timber, Parks and Fish & Wildlife, two patrol boats of the Department 
plus one RoC.MoP, boat patrolled the Bay waters. Four Deputy VJardens 
were on duty during the opening day under directions of department 
personnelo 

Shooting on the Bay opened in the northeast corner at 
11 §47 a.m, and by noon the thunder of the guns could be heard around 
the Bay, Shooting continued for about one hour and by 2? 00 p.m. had 
mostly ceased. Only small flocks of ducks were seen flying at anytime. 
Shooting re-started around 6^0 pcm, and continued fairly heavy until 
closing time. 

Severn River 

The Severn River was patrolled by boat by two conserva- 
tion officers from 4s30 a.m. to 5^30 p.m. on Saturday October 1, 
Twenty-five boats were checked prior to 12 noon and hunters were warned 
to observe the 12 o'clock opening hour. First firearm reports were heari 



- 3 - 



at 11,30 aoin. 
being te 

TABLE I^ 



being teal and wood ducks. 



Only four flights of ducks were observed, these 



RESULTS OF QPEMING DAY OF DU CK SEASON, OCTOBER 1, I960 
IN SOtlE AREAS OF LAKE SIMCOE DISTRICT, 



II Oo of Hunters 
Noo Man-Hours 
Noo of Dogs 
I-allards 
Blacks 
Pintail 

Green-winged Teal 
Blue-winged Teal 
Wood Euck 
Ring-necked Buck 
Hooded Merganser 
Gadwall 
Baldpate 
Greater Scaup 
Ruddy Duck 
Ganvasback 
Redhead 
Shoveler 
Lesser Scaup 
Unknown. 
Cripples Lost 



Holland 


Vespra 


Little 


Brock 


Marsh 


Little 


Mud 


TWP e 




Lake 
35 


Lake 
52 




269 


75 


1609.5 


13 5 


290 


342 


11 




1 




49 


10 


10 


13 


60 


10 


13 


16 


21 


5 






66 


3 


12 


9 


29 


4 


16 


13 


IS 


10 


13 


3 


1 


3 






2 


1 






2 








3 


1 






2 




2 





4 

1 

20 

57 



1 

4 
2 



Mo. ducks shot 

Moo ducks per man 

Noo Man-hours per duck 

No= ducks per man-hour 



27^3 


29 


6g 


54 


lc03 


0^3 


lo3 


.72 


5.^ 


4o7 


4o3 


6,3 


"1 •"? 


,21 


o23 


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T ABLE 3: 



5 - 



Comparing Hunting Success in Holland Marsh 
in 1959 and I960. 



Per cent of Bag 
1959 I960 



Mallard 


14o5 


17.6 


Black 


21.0 


21.6 


Pintail 


4.4 


7.6 


Green-winged Teal 


25<.7 


23.7 


Blue-winged Teal 


12.4 


10.4 


Wood Duck 


5o9 


6.5 


Baldpate (American Widgeon) 


1.5 


Icl 


Hooded Merganser 


l.g 


.72 


Unknovm 


10,4 


7.2 


Others 


2.4 


3c6 



No« Hunters checked 
No. ducks shot 
Noo Ducks per man 
No. Man-hours per duck 
No. ducks per man-hour 
No. cripples lost 



Overall 


Summary 


615 


269 


33S 


278 


• ,56 


1.03 


9.2 


5.8 


,11 


.17 


130 


57 



- 6 - 



TABLE kl 



Comparing Hunting Success in Matchedash Bay 
in 1939 a nd I960. 

Per cent of Bag 
1959 I960 



Mallard 

Black 

Pintail 

Green- -'-^.nged Teal 

Bl-ie-vinged Teal 

Wood Duck 

Lesser Scaup 

Hooded Merganser 

Greater Scaup 

FLing-nenJced Duck 

Others 



30o2 


23.2 


19.5 


19.2 


.9b' 


,3 


■f^.S 


8,9 


20,0 


10.4 


5o9 


12.8 


7oS 


- 


3o9 


12.0 


_, 


6,4 


o49 


2,4 


2c 4 


4.0 



No, hunters checked 

No, ducks shot 

Noo ducks per hunter 

No, man-hours per duck 

No, ducks per m.an-hour 

No. cripples lost 



Overall 


Summary 


146 


162 


205 


125 


1,4 


.77 


2,9 


7.5 


o34 


.13 


40 


16 



LUTHER MRSH GAME BAG CENSUS 
October 1, I960 



by 
A. T, Cringan 



Abstract 

A game bag census was conducted at Luther Marsh on 
opening day of the waterfowl season. Some 1,566 
hunters were checked and they had bagged 931 ducks, 
1B9 coots and three Canada Geese o The average hunter 
hunted 5o6 hours to bag Oo6l ducks and 0.12 coots. 
While the total kill of ducks was only "^kt of the 1959 
opening day kill, it was felt that this did not reflect 
the abundance of ducks at the marsho Conditions for 
hunting were poor and many ducks took sanctuary in the 
Crown Game Preserve while others flew high well beyond 
the range of the gunners. 



An estimated 1,S75 hunters used Luther Marsh on the opening 
day of the waterfowl season in I960, This estimate is based on a 
count of cars which were parked in the immediate vicinity of tho 
m^arsh between 12,00 noon and 2.30 p,m-. The mean number of hunters 
per car was obtained from five checking stations. One thousand eight 
hundred and seventy-five hunters is a minimum estimate, as some 
hunters arrived after 2.30 p.ra. There were 658 cars present, and 
there was an average of 2.S5 hunters per party. 

Five checking stations were operated at major access points 
from 2,00 pom, until most hunters had left the marsh, around 10,00 
Pom, Some 1,566 hunters were checked, and they had hunted ©,.^03 
hours to bag 931 ducks, 1^9 cools and 3 Canada Geese, The average 
hunter hunted T ^ r 5,6 hours and bagged 0,61 ducks as well as 0,12 coots 

Compared with opening day in 1959* number of hunters this 
year was down by about 100, or 5^» but hunters stayed longer, and so 
total hours hunted was up slightly. The total kill of ducks was only 
545^ of the 1959 opening day kill, and bag per hunter was 0,61 compared 
with 1«1 in 1959o Crippling losses, although not measured, likely 
were lower than in earlier years, owing to the gradual opening up of 
Luther Marsh over the years, which has made it easier to locate downed 
birds. 

Information collected at the checking stations is presented 
in Table I, The sample of birds sexed and aged is considered to be 
too small to give an accurate age or sex ratio. 



- ^ ^ 



Table I. Species, Sex and Age of Waterfowl Checked at 
Luther Marsh, October 1, I960. 



Species 


Adult 


Juvenile 


Sex, 


Total 


Per 












Age, 




cent 




6d 


9$ 


dd 


92 


not 
















det 






Lallard 


42 


109 


22 


60 


61 


294 


31.6 


Black Duck 


15 


26 


g 


6 


39 


94 


lOol 


Gadwall 


1 


4 




2 


3 


10 


1.1 


Pintail 


3 


2 


3 


8 


6 


22 


2o4 


Green-winged Teal 


21 


43 


7 


13 


41 


125 


13o4 


Blue-winged Teal 


20 


26 


16 


46 


64 


172 


18.5 


American Widgeon 


3 


9 


S 


9 


24 


53 


5.7 


Shoveler 


1 




1 




4 





Oo7 


Wood Duck 


3 


3 


2 


1 




9 


1.0 


Redhead 


2 


1 


2 




4 


9 


loO 


Ring-necked Duck 




2 


2 


2 


5 


11 


1,2 


Canvasback 


1 










1 


0,1 


Scaups (both sppo) 


5 


7 


7 


12 


4 


35 


3o8 


Bufflehead 




1 






1 


2 


0o2 


Ruddy Duck 


17 


5 


6 


9 


28 


65 


7.0 


Mergansers 




1 




1 


2 


4 


Oo4 


Unidentified ducks 










19 


19 


2c0 


Total Ducks 












931 


100.2 


Canada Goose 


2 


1 








3 




American Coot 












189 





- 9 - 

Discussion g 

Even though the total kill of ducks at Luther Marsh on 
opening day, I960, was only a little more than half as high as in 
1959> this does not reflect the abundance of ducks at that marsh. 
Conditions for hunting were poor this year, as October 1st, I960 
was a fine, clear, warm, sunny day. Many ducks took sanctuary with- 
in the Crown Game Preserve at the north end of the marsh, while 
others flew high, well beyond the reach of gunners. 

The proportions of Mallards, Blue-winged Teal and Green- 
winged Teal in the bag were normal, while Black Ducks, usually pro- 
minent, were much scarcer than usual. Among the less common species, 
record numbers of Ruddy Ducks, Lesser Scaup and American Widgeon or 
Baldpate were recorded. Despite year-to-year changes in abundance of 
species. Mallard, Black Duck and the two teals remained as the four 
most important species at Luther Marsh on opening day. 



- 10 - 



SUMMARY OF FALL, SPRING AND 
SUI\MER GOOSE AND DUCK KILLS, 
IN PATRICIA EAST, I960 



by 
Ao Gagnon 



Abstract 



Statistics are presented on the kill of geese and ducks 
by hunters and Indian families in the James Bay area 
of Patricia East during I960, Data were collected by 
Lands and Forests personnel from two checking stations, 
licensed hunting camps and from Indian families in the 
area. A total of 1649 hunters killed 1^,200 geese and 
ducks. Waterfowl killed by Indian families during the 
fall of 1959 and spring of I960 was 2g,990, The num- 
ber of kills for the past four years are compared. 



Statistics were taken from the check stations at the mouth 
of the Moose River, Len Hughes* Camp, Fort Albany, Bill Anderson, 
Fort Albany, James Bay Goose Club at North Bluff, 22 miles along the 
west coast from Moosonee and Ontario Northland Goose Camp, Hannah 
Bay, approximately 50 miles east of Moosonee along the east coast* 
Data were also collected from the Indian families for their fall, 
spring and summer kills in Patricia East portion. 

This year's data were collected as in the past three years, 
such as J the hunter's name, address, license number, species and 
number of kills. 

Patrol activities and collection of data from the hunters 
and Indian families at the two check stations were carried out by 
Lands and Forests personnel. Statistics from the licensed hunting 
cam.ps were collected by the R.CMoPa personnel. 

Peter Kataquapit, Ranger and the writer collected data 
from all the Indian families from Lake River, Attawapiskat , Fort 
Albany, Moose Factory and Moosonee areas for the fall, spring and 
summer kills. Data from each individual Indian were sent to Maple 
and the District Office with the annual report. A summ.ary of the 
kills is included in this report. 

S anctuary Established in January 195B 

The Moose River Bird Sanctuary at the mouth of the Moose 
River which consists of two locations^ one part being on Shipsand 
Island on the wePt shore and one on the east shore from the mouth 
of Moose River to Partridge Creek. Both parts consist of approximately 
3600 acres. The establishment of the sanctuary was to improve the 
hunting for the Moose Band Indians. 



- 11 



N umber of Kills for the Past Four Years from the Moose River Checking 
S tations and. Licensed Camps. 



Fall 



Blue-Snow 
Geese 



Canada 

Geese 



Ducks 



Check Stations 














Number of Hunters 


— 


.509 


1957 


3 504 


124 


1567 


American Hunters 


T/o 


944- 


1955 


7521 


166 


1329 


American Hunters 


S% 


1034 


1959 


11557 


204 


1452 


American Hunters 


k.6% 


1336 


I960 


11745 


296 


1524 


O.N,R, Hannah Bay 














Number of Hunters 


— 


131 


1957 


1136 


31 


565 


American Hunters 


90% 


95 


1955 


1155 


10 


225 


American Hunters 


7&% 


101 


1959 


924 


20 


219 


American Hunters 


&V^ 


145 


I960 


1663 


19 


297 


James Bay Goose Club 












Number of Hunters 


— 


55 


1957 


562 


10 


113 


American Huni-.ers 


kOfo 


63 


1955 


797 


10 


122 


American Hunters 


kO% 


65 


1959 


73 5 


13 


166 


American Hunters 


63f. 


32 


I960 


255 


11 


23 


Len Hushes, Fort Albany 












Num.ber of Hunters 


- 


107 


1957 


1035 


36 


72 


American Hunters 


^0% 


97 


1955 


1142 


11 


81 


American Hunters 


^1% 


101 


1959 


1039 


17 


219 


American Hunters 


nio 


103 


I960 


1256 


56 


314 


B. Anderson, Fort 


Albany 










Number of Hunters 


— 


— 


<- 


- 


• 


- 


American Hunters 


33% 


53 


1955 


370 


5 


15 


American Hunters 


51% 


41 


1959 


459 


11 


65 


American Hunters 


3% 


33 


I960 


344 


5 


29 



I 960 DATA FROM MOOSE RIVER CHECKING STATIONS FROM SEPT. 15. to NOV, 5 



Killed by 

Licensed Hunters 



Killed by 
Treaty Indians 



Totals 



Blue Gees; 

Adults 

Juveniles 



2142 
1755 



(*) 



3475 

2237 
Geese Salted 
Geese Smoked 
10% Added 



5620 
3992 

465 

95 

961 

11136 



12 - 



Killed by Killed by Totals 

LicensedHunters Treaty Indians 

Snow Geese 

Adults 201 221 422 

Juveniles 52 SO 132 

(*) 10^ Added 55 

^09 



Canada Geese Igg 105 296 

(*) lOfo Added _io 



Ducks 924 734 165S 

(*) lOfo Added l66 

1^24 



(*) For the birds not accounted for such as eaten in the field, 
wounded birds that were lost, poaching and Quebec Indians 
killing birds in Ontario 10^ of the kill was added as a 
conservative estimate. 

Total Goose Kill from the Checking Stations and Licensed Camps. 

Blue and Snow Geese 15326 
Canada Geese 3^7 

Ducks 24^7 

Number of Canadian Hunters 765 

Number of American Hunters • 2^4 

Number of Treaty Indians — 571 

1620 

Namber of Hunters with no kills — • I64 

Weather 

Comparing iveather conditions for the past four years for 
goose hunting is as follows^ Seasons - 1957 fair 

195s good 
1959 good 
i960 good 

Patrols 

Goose patrols were carried out extensively by the Dept. 
of Lands and Forests staff this fall as the R.C.M.P. did not have the 
help and equipment required as in previous years o 



- 13 



Convictions 



There were no charges laid this fall. A few minor infrac- 
tions were settled in the field. As a whole the hunting regulations 
were observed by the outside hunters and local people to a degree 
that satisfied the enforcement staff in the field. 

Recommendation 

Due to extreme variation among personnel working at the 
Check Stations and on Patrols, an attempt to provide more consistent 
results may possibly be reached by using local employees who have a 
knowledge of the James Bay coast, the surrounding area and the local 
guides. This would help to provide more accurate results. 



INDIAN FAMILIES IN PATRICIA EAST PORTION-KILLS FOR 
FALL, SPRING AND SUI#'IER 

SUI€4ER AND FALL OF 1959 SPRING OF I960 







Canada 


Geese 


Blue 

Snow Geese 




Ducks 




Sum. 


Fall 


Spr. 


Sum, Fall Spr. 


Sum. 


Fall Spr. 


*4oosonee 




35 


I4SO 


765 lOOg 




S9 67s 


Port Albany 




456 


22^7 


5041 1334 


113 


9^7 611 


/Ittawapiskat 


17s 
17^ 


493 
9^4 


2534 
6301 


63SO 2072 


473 
5S6 


l60g 36g 




121^6 4414 


26^4 1657 



CHECKING STATIONS, LICENSED CAMPS AND INDIAN KILLS 
IN PATRICIA EAST PORTION 

i960 1959 195^ 

]anada Geese » — 7^50 9097 66^5 

31ue - Snow Geese -» — ~-^»— 33926 3115S 30844 

Ducks 7414 BO67 7963 

rotal Birds Killed 49190 48322 45492 



4124 
22736 

6229 

330^9 



- 14 - 



PHEASANT HARVEST I960 - LAKE SIMCOE DISTRICT 

by 
Jo So Borland 



Abstract 

During the I960 open season for pheasants in the l6 
Regulated Townships of Lake Simcoe District some 1,842 
hunters were checked. This sample survey showed that 
SSl pheasants had been harvested in 6,43^ man-hours of 
hunting for an average of ckS birds per huntero It 
required 7»3 man-hours of hunting to bag one bird. A 
total of 7>650 tov/nship licences had been sold up to 
Octo 29^ 3>l60 to residents and 4i(490 to non-residents, 
an increase of some 900 township licences over the pre- 
vious yearo 



A mixture of sun, rain and overcast greeted the majority 
of pheasant hunters during the open season this year in the Lake 
Simcoe District., This changeable weather, however, did not deter 
the pheasant hunter who was out in force during the two to three 
weeks open season. From October 19 to 29 the hunters in the regu- 
lated townships of Ontario and York Counties and from October 12 to 
29 in Peel County enjoyed a fair amount of good hunting. Although 
the hunter success picture this year varies little from the previous 
years, hunters with dogs had good luck in those townships participat- 
ing in the banded pheasant release project where a good number of 
adult birds were released just prior to the open season. 

A total of 15,400 day-old poults and adult pheasants were 
received from the Provincial Hatchery at Codrington« Seven thousand 
of the above number vjere day-olds which were raised by the parti- 
cipating tov/nships to poult age and released. The remainder, less 
some 900, were immediately released as pcults and adultsc The 900 
poults were raised to adult age and released just prior to the open 
seasons. See table rf H-- for Pheasant Distribution r 

A total of 7>650 township licences were sold up to the 29th 
of October, 3A60 to residents and 4j490 to non-residents of the 
townships c This is an increase of some 900 township licences over the 
previous year. The bulk of this inci'ease is made up of resident 
licences sold by the township of King. See table # II for further 
information on township licences sold. 

If it may be supposed that all hunters purchasing township 
licences hunted during the open season in those townships showing 
a pheasant harvest, the approximate kill of pheasants in these town- 
ships would be 3,300. 



- 15 - 



H unter Statistics for 11 Regulated Townships 

Number of regulated townships 

'« «* " «'•■ showing 
pheasant harvest 

Number of hunting parties checked 
" , " '" " using dogs 
" " hunters checked 
*' '* man-hours hunted 

Cock birds seen 

Hen birds seen 

Cock birds harvested 

Hen " " 

Total " " 

Bird per hunter across district 

Man-hours hunted per bird 

See Table I for complete summaryo 



16 

11 

705 

343 

1842 

643 S 
1261 
1028 
546 
335 
881 
.48 
7.3 



Figures tendered by the Barrie and District Sportsmen's 
Association regarding pheasant hunting in those townships bordering 
Barrie, show hunter success as follcv;ss 



No. Days No. of No. of 
Recorded Parties Hunters 



5 

Hens 
Killed 

17 



15 

Total 

Killed 

30 



48 



Man-HrS: 
Hunted 

192 



Cocks 
Seen 

26 



Hens 
Seen 

40 



Cocks 

Killed 

13 



Bird per Man-Hrs. 
Hunter per Bird 



,60 



6.6 



R emarks 

As the district was participating in a regional banding 
project with the pheasants this year, the bulk of our data v/ere 
recorded from the tov\mships involved in this project. Thus, some 
of our regulated areas were not covered to the extent they have 
been in previous years = Although Vaughan Township shows the best 
results (Table III), it is not a true picture owing to the small 
number of hunters that were checked. 

The majority of the hunters picked the townships of Markhara, 
Whitchurch and Toronto to do their hunting, where results were about 
one-half bird per hunter in Markham. and Chingaucousy but, fell well 
down from previous years in Whitchurch where hunters had only fair 
success. 

Nil reports on pheasant harvest were recorded in the three 
South Simcoe townships, East Gwillimbury in York and Toronto Gore in 
Peel, These townships outside Toronto Gore are in very marginal 
pheasant lands and the hunters checked there during the open season 
were content with the hunting of rabbits. 



- 16 - 



Although the hunter enjoyed a lengthy season plus introduced 
adult pheasants just prior to the open season in five townships, the 
hunter success remained relatively the same from the previous yearo 



TABLE Is 



PHEASANT HARVEST REPORT I9 60 
LAKE SIMCOE DISTRICT 



Days Noo Days Parties Parties Noo Kan- 
Open Checked Checked Using Hunters Hours 
Dogs Checked Hunted 



Whitby 


10 


6 


E. Whitby 


10 


3 


Pickering 


10 


S 


Karkhara 


10 


6 


Whitchurch 


10 


7 


Vaughan 


10 


4 


King 


10 


5 


Albion 


16 


2 


Caledon 


16 


6 


Chingaucousy 


16 


10 


Toronto 


16 


9 



3S 

6 

69 

150 

157 
6 

37 

5 

26 

59 

152 



23 
2 

31 

75 

gl 

1 

17 
2 
12 
2S 
71 



99 

11 

206 

441 

13 
94 
16 

51 
152 

371 



360 

20 

^72 

1629 

1294 

56 

295 

4^ 

17^ 

546 

1120 



Totals 



705 



343 



1^^^42 



643^ 



- 17 - 



TABLE I. CQNT^Dg 





Pheasants 
Seen 

M F 


Pheasants 

Shot 
M F 


Total 
Shot 


Bird 

Per 

Hunter 


Man-Hr. 
Per 
Bird 


Whitby 


76 


41 


39 


16 


55 


.54 


6.6 


E, Whitby 


2 


8 


5 


1 


6 


.54 


3.2 


Pickering 


94 


88 


83 


42 


125 


.62 


7.0 


Markham 


437 


404 


135 


101 


236 


.51 


6.9 


Whitchurch 


129 


141 


63 


41 


104 


.27 


12.4 


Vaughan 


18 


14 


9 


5 


14 


1.0 


4.0 


King 


118 


112 


49 


24 


73 


.79 


4.0 


Albion 




2 












Caledon 


14 


13 


6 


8 


14 


.27 


12,7 


Chingaucousy 


74 


42 


70 


17 


87 


.57 


6.3 


Toronto 


199 


163 


87 


80 


167 


.45 


606 


Totals 


1261 


1028 


546 


335 


881 


.48 


7.3 



- 18 - 



TABLE Hi 



Townsh ip Licences Sold up to October 29^ I960. 



Tox-mship 


Resident 


Whitby 


399 


East VJhitby 


79 


Pickering 


379 


Mark ham 


355 


Vaughan 


238 


King 


285 


Whitchurch 


191 


East Gwillimbury 


145 


Albion 


82 


Caledon 


83 


Chingaucousy 


200 


Toronto Gore 


25 


Toronto 


520 


Adjala 


20 


Tecumseth 


79 


'A' e s t i wi 1 1 i mb u r ' ^ 


80 



Tot 3.1 s 



3160 



Resident 


___Total 


240 


639 


134 


213 


1,00 


779 


666 


1021 


226 


464 


739 


1024 


487 


678 


91 


236 


400 


482 


140 


22^. 


190 


390 


100 


125 


150 


670 


110 


130 


302 


381 


115 


195 


a90 


7650 



19 - 



TABLE Ills 



PHEASANT DISTRIBUTION 





LAKE 


SIMCOE DISTRICT I960 






Township 




Day-Old 


Poult 


Adult 


Total 


ifVhitby 




700 


700 


30 


1430 


East Whitby 




500 


500 


30 


1030 


Pickering 




1200 


1300 


30 


2530 


Mark ham 




700 


700 


30 


1430 


V/hit church 




800 


800 


30 


1630 


Vaughan 




800 


800 


30 


1630 


King 




500 


900 


30 


U30 


Peel County 




1300 


1600 


50 


2950 


Acljala 






150 


10 


160 


Tecuraseth 






200 


10 


210 


V\[est GwillimbL 


iry 




200 


10 


210 


East Gwillimbury 




150 


10 


160 


Miscellaneous 




500 


100 




600 



7000 



8100 



300 



15400 



- 20 - 



PELEE ISLAND JULY SURVEY (AND ESSEX COUNTY) I960 

by 
Lo J. Stock 



Abstract 

The Annual Pheasant Survey on Pelee Island indica'ced 
an increase j- the number of broods present of 1909^0 
Using this increase as an index the population for the 
hunt was estimated at ^,900 cocks and 13,300 hens. 
The suggested bag limit at the end of the survey v/as 
10 cocks and no henso Also included are additional 
population data" the results of pheasant faecal exami- 
nations for parasites and disease by Dr, J. K. McGregor, 
Ontario Veterinary/- College; a ].ist of plant specimens 
collected harbouring insects or disease; notes on fire, 
weather, and cover* 



Kethod 

The annual Pelee Island Survey is essentially a roadside 
brood count, from a vehicle, over fixed road transects, to obtain an 
index to the populationo The same conditions apply to the mainland 
survey in Essex County, 

THE ANNUAL PELEE ISLAND PHEASANT SURVEY 
_WAS CARRI ED OUT FROr-i JULY 11-27, I960, 

The results of the survey indicate a pre-shoot pheasant 
population of - 

Cocks .^,900 

Hens 13 V 300 

Total 22,200 

rag limit set - 10 cocks, no hens 

Population data for 195'^, 1959, 1960ar3 tabulated belowc 



- 21 - 



FINAL PHEASANT POPULATION DATA IN JULY, I960 
Compared to 1959 



1959-1960 DIFFERENCE 



195^ 1959 1960 No. 



Brood Size 7o5 7»1 6.5 



k/i INLAND ONTARIO 
ESSEX COUNTY - POPULATION DATA 






Total Broods A-82 236 2^3 -t 47 f 19o9fo 
Counted 



Total Cocks 62 39 34 - 5 - 12o&fo 
Total Hens 620 409 403 - 6 - 1.5:'^ 



Broodless Hens 

Count 139 177 115 - 62 - 35»0^ 



% 


22.4 


43 e 2 


28.5 






Broods per mile 
(138 mij 


3.5 


lo7 


2.0 


4- 0.3 




C/H ratio 


1/10 


1/10.5 


1/11,8 













1957 




1959 


Total Broods 






23 




34 


Total Cocks 










29 


Total Hens 










46 


B-^oodless Hens 


No. 
% 








12 

27 


Broods Der mi, 

J. 






0,23 
(102 mi.) 




0.27 
(124 mi.) 


C/H ratio 




(E 


1/1 5 

stimated) 




1/1.58 


Brood size 










7.8 


Bag Limit 




3 


birds per 


day, 


one of which may 






be 


a hen. 







22 



PELEE ISLAND 



Fires observed from July 12 - 27^ I960. 

Only two small grass fires had occurred prior to 
July 12th and no others noted during the survey period. 

These fires were obvious attempts to clean up a mowed road- 
side and were not successful. There was no dam^age to propert]^ and 
no pheasant nests were found in the burned areas. 

The above is in marked contrast to conditions in July, 1959? 
when 13 fires were recorded, one of which threatened the destruction 
of buildings. Almost all of these were deliberately set. The total 
burned area was estimated at 6,?7 acres in which were found S4 
pheasant nests and (^43 eggs. 

The destruction of wildlife along with extensive destruction 
of cover by mowing and spraying was pointed out to the Pelee Council 
by letter (now on file) in 1959 and it is now gratifying to see con- 
ditions improved. 

A comparison of the two years illustrates that almost all 
such fires can be avoided if people will stop and think and take 
proper precautions. 

Crop Conditions 

Seeding was late, particularily of soy beans, some of which 
had only emerged when the survey began. The spring was cool and wet 
and corn is still (at July 27th j showing the effect of the excessive 
moisture - bottom leaves are necrotic. Some farmers state that 
cultivated crops are the poorest in many years. 



Vifild plants are particularily luxuriant and cover is dense. 



Weather 



The winter of 1959-60 was normal. There were no ice con- 
ditions as in the previous winter, no excessive snow or unseasonable 



temperature. 



The spring, as in the remainder of the District, was wet 
and cold with at least tvra periods of almost a week each v/et and 
cold, with very little sun. The number of broods hatching in L.ay 
decreased rather than increased during the last two weeks » 

In two rainy periods - June 11th to 14th inclusive and 
July 1st to 2nd inclusive, the total rainfall recorded was 2.02 and 
2,26, respectively. There is no doubt that some young pheasant chicks 
died and that clutches of eggs were washed away or abandoned. Loss 
of nests is well illustrated by an interruption in the hatching curve 
following the rainy periods. 



- 23 " 



On the mainland, following the heavy June rains, 4-5 week 
old poults were found dead in raising pens - definite evidence that 
mortality did occur. 

Following is the recorded total monthly rainfall for Pelee 
Island for four years" 

RAINFALL RECORDS PELEE ISLAND 





April 


May 


June 


July 


1957 


2o39 


2.36 


3c70 




1953 


2,92 


lo71 


3o73 




1959 


4o69 


5.05 


1.29 




I960 


3o06 


3.6g 


2.95 


2.26 

(July 1 & 2 only) 



In spite of the much higher rainfall during April and May 
in 1959> there was no apparent interruption to the hatch similar to 
that in I96O, This is due in part to the intensity of the rain over 
a short period in I96O and in part to the late hatch in 1959? the 
peak of which occurred during the week of July 1st following the 
driest June on record. 

Cover Destruction 

There was some roadside mowing and spraying before July 
12th and mowing continued throughout the survey but on a much reduced 
scale than in July, 1959. Notes on the grass fires observed in I960 
are included elsewhere in this report. 

Study of Diseases <^, Parasites of Pheasants 



A routine collection of pheasant faecal samples was 
collected and mailed to Dr. i-icGregor at Ontario Veterinary College 
for examination. The attitude of the present council has not changed 
from last year regarding this subject and they are apparently sending 
no birds to Dr. McGregore 



- 24 



DISEASES AND INSECTS OF PLANTS OBSERVED ON 
PELEE AND ADJACENT ISLAND, JULY I960 

by 

J. Ko McGregor, Department of Parasitology, 
Ontario Veterinary College, GUELPH, Ontario. 

Following are some observations of plant diseases and insects, 
found mainly on trees, on Pelee and adjacent Islands in Western Lake 
Erie and in the vicinity of Sandusky, Ohio, from JuIaa 12 to 27, 1960o 

Samples of almost all species marked-?^ were sent to the 
Forestry Pathology Laboratories either at Maple or Sault Ste. Marie., 
Others were pressed and preserved in the dry state for identification. 

Elm Mortality 

The .number of dead and dying elms has increased greatly 
from last year. The cause is probably Dutch elm disease as its 
presence here has been confirmed from samples. 

Dead elms are also conspicuous on the Islands of Old Hen, 
East Sister, Middle and on all Islands from Pelee to Sandusky, Ohio, 
and in the vicinity of Sandusky, Trees of all sizes are affected. 

Sycamore-^ 

"Tip die-back" of Sycamore is present on Pelee and around 
Sandusky. Leaf drop in some cases is severe and the soil beneath 
the tree is almost leaf covered. All dead leaves observed are a 
characteristic dark brown. No tree was seen unaffected of approximately 
100 encountered. The Sycamore has been extensively used for landscaping 
in and around Sandusky o 



Red Ash 



O ak sp , 



Leaf spot on seedlings >k 

Leaf ''mosaic?'* on mature trees ^ 



Leaf spot^ 



Severe leaf damage by possibly a virus or fungus" 
Entire mature trees are affected by the latter. One mature 
tree is dead. There are several species of oak on the Island, 



H ackberry 

Leaf gall - abundant "^ 



Leaf mosaic? possibly a virus 



- 25 - 

I^iaple 

No typical anthracnose pattern was seen on leaves* However 
some trees were partially defoliated previously and the trees are 
now in leaf, but the entire tree or section of it appears to wilt 
although the weather has not been excessively hot and abundant mois- 
ture v/as certainly not lacking this yeare There is some apparent 
insect damage on maples^. 

Fragrant Sumac 

Tip die-back is common and grossly resembles the pattern 
on the sycamiore. It may be caused by a disease or an insect o^jfcr 
This is an important shrub here - providing a great deal of natural 
cover for pheasants. 

Walnut 



There is an insect leaf eating larvae on walnut - not 
serious at present. >^ 

Buttonbush 

Leaf Cur.r^ - not serious 
Black Elder 

Larvae (caterpillars) in web X - not serious 
D ogwood sp. (not Florida) 

Scale on stems 'f heavy infestation in some areas. 
Hawthorn 

Fungus on fruit complete infestation on some mature tree; 
- fruit destroyed - common « 

Gj.ant Ragweed 

Black aphids and larvae of Lady bird beetle., -^ 
Heavy infestation in local areas 



The attached map shows the approximate location where the 
samples were collected. In the majority of cases the insects and 
diseases also occur elsewhere on the Island. 

A large soft brown scale found on Hackberry in previous 
years was not found this year. 



-. 26 - 



PELEE ISLAND 



White larvae 

V/alnut 

Leaf gall on 

Hackberry 

Brown leaf on rjeck'as]^ 




Showing locations where 
plant insect and disease 
amples were collected, 
uly, I960 



\(^ Tip die-back on Sycamore 
Leaf curl on Buttonbush 



- 27 - 



Enclosed herewith is a copy of the results obtained in an 
examination of the faecal specimens submitted from Pelee Islande 



n - #14 



#3 Coccidia #20 Coccidia, capillaria 

#5 — #20(a) - 



7 — #25 



#7(a) -~ #2.5 (a) Coccidia, capillaria 

#S Spirurid larvae 3 #2? 

#11 — #2.^ 

Old Hen Island No No. Syngamus 

V/e assume that this is just an annual check of the para- 
sitic situation on Pelee, however if there is any disease apparent 
I expect that you will be in touch with uso 



2S 



THE PELEE ISLAND PHEASANT SHOOT I96O 
STATISTICS AND DISCUSSION 

by 
L» J. Stock 



Abstract 

One thousand and tv/enty hunters bagged 5794 cocks - an 
average of 5«6B per hunter during the two day season » 
The post season population estimate is 25^4 cocks and 
10.746 henso The indicated survival of 490 cocks re- 
leased in karch I960 was 24%. The summer adult cock 
population is estimated from observations of banded 
birds in the field during July. Crippling loss is 
estimated from hunter reports. Comments on the shoot 
submitted in writing by the hunters indicated that the 
shoot was not as popular as in previous years. Statis- 
tics of the shoot and discussions are presented. 



Statistics Based on Hunter Questionnaires 



Season - 
Bag Limit ~ 

Tc'cal Number of Hunters 
Number of Returns Received 
Sample Size 
Total Cocks Bagged 

Hunter Success 



Oct. 26 and 27th 
10 cocks, no hens 



1020 

1^4 

1B% 

5794 



Cocks bagged per hunter 

1st day 4*6 

2nd dav loO^ 

Total 



5o6g 



Cocks bagged per hunter hour 

1st day 0.62 

2nd day 0.24 

Total 

Hunters who bagged limit 
(both days) 
Hunters who bagged no birds 

Hunted 1st day only 
Hunted both days 



0.4s 



13% 

2.2% 

5.5% 
94 « 5% 



- 29 - 

Hours per hunter in the field 

1st day 7-4 

2nd day 4o6 

Total 12.0 

Hours hunting to bag a bird 

1st day lo6l 

2nd day 4o26 

Average both days 2.1 

C rippling Loss 

Computed totals 

Cocks 27.7^^ of the bag 1605 
[ Hit and not retrieved) 
Less cripples picked up 
by another and included 
in the bag. 

2.8$t- of the bap 162 
(10/0 of cripples 



Net loss 24.9/^ of bag 1443 

Picked up, shot by another 

5% of bag 290 

Included in the bag 

2.8% of bag 162 

Unaccounted for 2,2% of bag 128 

Seen and not picked up 

2,8% of bag 162 

Total dead cocks seen by hunters 452 

(This is 28/0 of cripples hit or 
7.9% of the total bag) 

Hens 

By sample hunters 

Picked up, shot by another 67 

Seenand not picked up 40^ 

Total found dead 475 

This is equivalent to 

45»5% of the cocks bagged or 

2636 birds. 

Computed totals 

Seen and picked up 

Per Hunter O.36 

Total 370 

Seen and not picked up 

Per Hunter 2.22 

Total 2264 



- 30 - 



Total seen dead 

Per Hunter 2.6 

Total 2636 



Crippling Loss Data Compared for 195^, 1959, I960, 
All Hunters both days 
Cocks and Henso 



19 5r^ 1959 i960 





llOo of 

Birds 


% of 
Bag 


ko. of 
Birds 


% of 
Bag 


llOc of 
Birds 


% of 
Bag 


Hit and not 
retrieved 


25BO 


23 


2003 


24 


1605 


27o7 


Seen dead in field 


2g7S 


25 


263 g 


22 


3O86 


53.0 


Seen dead and not 
picked up 


1553 


14 


1607 


19 


2426 


42, 


Seen dead and 
picked up 


1325 


12 


1031 


12 


660 


llo4 


Picked up and included 
in the bag 






442 


5.3 


162 


2.S 


Total bag 


11227 




S3 50 




5794 




Bag Limit 


9C 
2H 




gc 

2H 




IOC 

OH 




Crippling Loss 















Hit and not retrieved Cocks I6O5 

Percentage of bag 27 » 7 

Per hunter 1»57 

Picked up shot by another Cocks 290 

Percentage of bag 5 

Picked up shot by another Hens 374 

Percentage of bag 6.45 

Included in the bag Cocks l62 

Percentage of bag 2,S 

Included in the bag Hens 

Seen dead and not picked up Cocks 162 

Percentage of bag 2.S 

Seen dead and not picked up Hens 2264 

Percentage of Bag 39<. 

Total hens dead 2636 

Percentage of bag 45 05 

Hens found dead per hunter 2.6 

Hens handed in (all hunters) 39 • 



- 31 - 

Unaccounted for Hens 2 597 

Cocks 128 

Total 2725 

Percentage of bag 1^-^% 

Population Data 

C ocks 

Pre~season estimate, July^ I960 B,921 

Less 10/0 of bag for loss 

and illegal kill 743 

Less stock estimated 750 lj493 

Net birds to bag (native) 

i960 7428 

Birds bagged I96O 5794 

Difference -1,634 

(21.8% of estimate) 

Kill Estimate, 

Bag 5794 

Plus net crippling 

loss 1443 
Total Kill 6,837 

Pre-season population 

Native birds, July estimate 8921 
Plus imports 500 

Total 9,421 

Post season population 

Pre-season population 9421 
Less total kill 6837 

Net 2,584 

Hens 

Pre-season population July estimate 13,382 

Post season population 

Pre-season July estimate 13,382 
Less total seen dead 2,636 
Uet 10,740 

Band Returns 

Banded Cocks released in Larch I960 490 
Banded birds reported shot 

by sample hunters 17 

Contribution 1.6% of total bag 93 



- 32 - 

Percentage of total kill 1«36^£ 

Percentage of pre-season population estiraate 0« 



Indicated survival 117 



Percentage survival 21+% 

Remaining in the population 2 5 birds 

For Comparison - Ivarch release 

1952 released 192 survival 15% 
1956 released 300 survival 17o7/^ 

Banded and Unbanded Cocks 
O bserved in the field July I96 0. 

In I arch 1960,, 1+90 banded cocks were released on the 
Island, and it was decided to attempt to ^et some information on 
the prevalence of these birds during the sunmero Consequently 
during the annual brood count, July 12 to 27 inclusive, all cock 
birds observed, were checked to ascertain, if possible, whether or 
not they carried bandse If it was established that they did or did 
not carry bands they v/ere recorded as banded or unbanded. The 
results were as follows? 

Banded cocks observed 16 - 3S^o 
Unbanded cocks observed 26 - 62^? 

Total 42 

Ratio of banded to unbanded 1 i 1«63 

The average yearly mortality rate (from shoot to shoot) 
for native cocks, as established by Stokes is 30/bo It is estimated 
that the mortality up to July is 20%. These estimates have been 
used in the work on Pelee for a number of years, and are much less 
than the mortality of released birds as shown in this report. 

The following statistics from the shoot involving a known 
nuidber of banded birds are given in an attempt to check the estiiaates 
of the adult cock population in July and at the shoot. 

Banded cocks surviving to the shoot 
(March to October) 117 - 24^^ 
kiortality (Larch to October) 7^^ 

The mortality rate would probabl3^ be greater immediately 
following release and is estimated at 50/^ up to July. Therefore, 
the number of banded cocks alive would be 50% of 490 or 245 

Assuming that the ratio banded to unbanded cocks observed, 
is representative of the population, the 245 surviving banded birds 
represents 3'^% of the adult cock population. The native cock popu- 
lation in July would then be 4OO, and the total number of coCi.;s 
would be 645 » 

The estimate of cocks alive after the shoot in 1959 was 
estimated at approximately 750. Mortality is estimated at 20% from 



- 33 - 

the shoot until the next July which would leave 600 native birds. 
This compares with the 400 estimated from banded birds seen in the 
field in July. This is a small sample and estimates are tentative. 

The assumption that the banded to unhanded cock ratio is 
representative of the population may not be true, because imported 
cocks may be without established territories and may tend to wander 
where they are more easily observed. 

There may also be errors in the post shoot estimate, or 
the mortality rate could have been above average, which v/ould account 
for the lower number of cocks calculated from the observation in July 

Hunters Comments on the Shoot 

Total returns without comment 8? - Wl% 
Total returns v/ith comment 97 - 53% 

Favourable re the hunt 5 - 5.4/^ 

adverse re the hunt £2 - 94»6^ 

97 

Adverse comments represent 94»6^ of those who commented or 50.0% 
of those who submitted returns. 

Hunters who complained of an outright scarcity 
of birds or a scarcity in proportion to the 
number of hunters, or a scarcity of shooting 
opportunities due to adverse weather and 
wet cover. - 69 - I'^/o 

(of those offering comments) 

Number of hunters checked or interviewed by 
Conservation Officers during both days 31^ 

For comparison, some statistics from the 1957 shoot are of interest. 

riumber of hunters 1000 

Bag Limit 9 cocks hens 

Number of hunters who shot their limit 4^.6,^9 

Average bag 7.4/3 

Total 'bag 7400 

Loss and illegal kill 740 

(10% estimated) 

Total kill 5^140 

Pre shoot population estimated 

(Kelker Index) gg97 

Number of birds after the hunt 757 

The estimates of the pre~shoot population and the bag are practically 
the same as in 1960« The total kill in I960 is down 1203 birds or 
14. 7f.. 



- 34 - 



Discussion; 



Ge neral 

For the first time in six years the weather for the shoot 
was poor. Rain on the first day resulted in wet cover, wet birds, 
and wet hunters. The birds preferred to run rather than fly and 
many hunters were apparently dissatisfied with the shoot and said so 
emphatically. (See comments on the shoot by hunters). There was 
a noticeable increase in the prices charged for board and lodging 
which added to the general dissatisfaction. It was unfortunate, 
from the residents standpoint that this increased expense to hunters 
occurred in a year when the shoot was subject to more than average 
criticism. 

A number of hunters mentioned the increased competition 
for Pelee Island, from shooting preserves, and stated that they 
would not return to Pelee, 

Hunter Success 



According to the statistics obtained from the hunter 
questionnaires, the shoot was not nearly as poor as one would 
expect from the general comments. 

The number of hunters decreased by 117 due largely to the 
decline in the reported number (100) of resident hunters. In 1959 
there were 200 resident and complimentary licences sold. 

The number of cocks bagged per hunter was slightly higher 
in i960 (0.12 per hunter). The total bag was down by 54^ birds 
and when imported birds are considered (1000 in 1959, 500 in I96O) 
which were released a few days prior to the hunt, the bag of native 
cocks was practically the same in both years. 



There are, 



however 



.^ ^x^, ..w.,^v^^, other reasons for the discontent of 
the hunters. The cock bag was increased from B to 10 and the hen 
bag was reduced from 2 to 0. The higher bag of cocks is more diffi- 
cult to attain even under ideal conditions and this difficulty is 
increased by adverse vreather. 

S hooting of Hens 

During the 1959 hunt the overall bag was increased by the 
inclusion of two hens, and over QO^C of the hunters shot their quota . 
Hens were excluded in I960 and reports of the hunters indicate that 
2S36 were seen dead in the field and 2264 were not picked up. These 
figures represent 45.5/o and 39% respectively of the cocks bagged and 
exceed the number of hens bagged (202B) in 1959. The hens bagged 
in 1959 brought the total average bag to 7-4 birds and was a major 
factor in making the hunt a success. 

The psychological effect on the hunter "bagging his limit '•% 
particularly on Pelee Island is also a yardstick by which the success 
of the shoot may be measured. The hunts of 1956 and 1957 were cons- 
idered a success by po^^^il^r opinion. In 1956, with the limit at 



- 35 - 



only 6 cocks ^9% of the hunters bagged their lirait, and in 1957 
with the limit of 9 cocks 4B«6% bagged their quota" while in I960 
with the limit set at 10 cocks, only 13% bagged their quotao 

By coincidences the average bag of cocks 5.6^ in 1956- was 
exactly the same as in 1960, 

It would seem that the ability of the hunter to attain his 
lim.it is more important than the number of birds bagged. 

Shortage of Birds. 

The pre-season cock population, as estimated in July was 
^921, After allowing for crippling loss, illegal kill and stock, 
the net birds available to the hunters were estimated at 742''^« 

To make the shoot a success, tiie Pelee Council has set 
as their objective, a mdnimum bag for this and future years of 10 
birds o This would require a minimum of 10,000 birds available to 
the hunter. Our estimate this year (I960) of 7,400 approximately 
was 2600 or 26/b short of the minimum requirements, thus a shortage 
of birds was inevitable. 

To have 10,000 birds for the hunters the pre-season 
population must be in the order of 12,000 to allow for crippling 
loss, illegal kill and residual cocks for breeding. 

It was quite evident, at the end of the annual survey in 
late July, that the Pelee Council were convinced that the survey 
estimate was low and that there was a sufficient number of cocks 
to warrant a bag limit of 10 and so recommended. They agreed to 
buy and release birds if, in their opinion, the population seemed 
to decline. This decline apparently did not occur, and they v^rere 
optimistic even shortly before the shoot, although they did import 
and release 500 cocks a fev/ days prior to opening day. According 
to our estimate they should have released for the hunters an 
additional 1000 to bring the available population up to m.iniraum 
requirements for the shoot and 2000 more to allow for loss and stocr., 

The number of birds actually bagged was lower by 1634 
(21.6%) than the estimated number available, and was little more 
than half (5^%) of what it should have been for a bag limit of 10, 

Factors contributing to this shortage could have been a 
high estimate, poor hunting weather, above average mortality from 
July to the shoot, above average illegal shooting, or a combination 
of all these factors. 

Post Season Estimates 

During the past few years, the weather and hunting 
pressure have been quite constant and the number of cocks rem.aining 
after the shoot, estimated at between 700 and 800, seemed reasonably 
accurate. 



- 36 - 

In i960, with poor weather, and somewhat less hunting 
pressure, the post season estimate of 25^4 cocks is quite possible. 

The estimated population of hens made in July less the 
total seen dead, leaves 10,746 alive after the shoot o 

In spite of the optimism of the Pelee Council prior to 
the shoot when birds were declared abundant, and the smaller than 
expected total bag;, the post season population is declared, by the 
Council, to be dangerously low. The shortage of birds is believed 
serious enough to warrant restocking which has been done. One 
thousand hens and 500 cocks were imported from Wisconsin early in 
December I96O and released. 

There is no procedure by which the population can be 
measured until next July, so we will have to ''wait and see"', whether 
or not the situation is critical. 

We have no evidence that an epidemic reduced the population 
between July and October. However, the shipment of birds to Dr. K. 
McGregor at OoVoCo, for examination, has at best, been spasmodic and 
disease might have occurred without detection. We know that patho- 
gens do exist in the populations and may at any time build up when 
conditions become favourable. 

If the post season estimate of hens, 10,746 is reduced in 
the same ratio as the estimated cock bag (21.^^), the revised post 
season hen population is SkOl+o Even if the post season estimate is 
reduced by 50/^, which is unlikely, the hen population should still 
be in excess of 5000. The im.pression conveyed by the Pelee Council, 
by telephone, indicates that the residual population is much less 
than this. If this is true then there has been a major die-off of 
birds of which we have no evidence or reports. 

Supervision of the Shoot 

Three Departmental Officers supervised the shoot. Ken 
Juck and Bruce Howell were there for the entire week, with Vic 
V/alker assisting during the two days open season. 

Thirty-one pe?:-cent of the hunters were contacted by the 
officers during the num 



. O o 



Twelve violations of the hunting regulations were found 
ani appropriate charges laid, nine for late shooting one for early 
shooting, and two for using a shotgun v/ith the magazine unplugged. 

Acknov/'-ledgement s 

The work of Assistant Senior Conservation Officer Ken 
Juck, Conservation Officer Bruce Howell, and Vic Walker, who super- 
vised the shoot and collected the data which made possible this report, 
is gratefully acknowledged. 



37 - 



UTILIZATION BY MOOSE IN WINTER OF TWENTY-FIVE SQUARE 
MILES OF PULPWOOD CUTOVER, GERALDTON DISTRICT, 1959-1960, 



by 
J, Ae Macfie 



Abstr act 

Repeated censusing of a 25 square mile tract of cut- 
over land near Geraldton between Dec. 7, 1959 and 
April 1, i960 J lent support to the belief that v/hile 
moose favour such open range during the first half 
of the winter, they tend to move to heavier cover in 
February and March. Attempts were made to measure 
the degree of utilization of the various timber t^^pes 
as winter progressed. Of a variety of classes of 
cutover, moose appeared to prefer the most lightly 
disturbed standso a high proportion of the moose 
seen during the winter were calves, and a possible 
shortage of bulls was noted. Movements of certain 
individual animals were traced for periods of up to 
sixteen weeks. 



Introduction 

A standard 25 square mile aerial moose census plot situated 
15 miles south of the tovm of Geraldton was censused IS times at regu- 
lar intervals between December 7> 1959 and April 1, I96O0 Observations 
of moose were plotted on large sc^le timber type mapsT thus a record 
of m.oose distribution on that particular section of range through most 
of the winter was obtained, permitting assessment of the different 
timber types in terms of their attractiveness to noose. In addition, 
some inform.ation on the movements of individual animals was recorded. 

P lot Description 

Map Noo I is a timber type map of the plot, Table II sum- 
marizes the distribution of timber t^^pes within the plot, and Table III 
describes in detail the composition of certain types. 

The project had two purposes" it was designed to tes't the 
efficiency of aerial censusing under various conditions {see -'An 
Analysis of Some Factors Affecting Aerial Moose Censusing'" by J. A. 
Macfie) as v/ell as for range study, but in setting up the plot the 
objectives of the latter were given the most consideration. The 
general area in which the plot is situated has been extensively log- 
ged over for pulpwood during the past 15 years by the Kimberly-Clark 
Corporation, which presumably has improved it as moose range. The 

^Two Large scale Maps accompanied the original report vvhich 
is on file in the Fish and Wildlife Library, Maple. 



- 3^ - 

plot was placed so that the company's Goldfield Road, an all-weather 
trunk system which moose hunters are permitted to use freely, bisected 
ito Other considerations were nearness to the Geraldton air base, and 
accessibility for ground work. 

The surface of the study area may be described in general 
terms as gently rolling, although there are some extensive level 
swampy areas, and some precipitous topography in glacial sand deposits 
There are very few exposures of bedrocko In the original forest solid 
stands of black spruce and spruce mixed with jackpine predominated. 
There were also fairly extensive stands of m.ixedwood (spruce, birch, 
poplar and jackpine) and some patches of pure jackpine o Pulp cutting 
in the vicinity of the plot began about 194-4'' The plot was logged 
regularly from 1945 until 1951^ and irregularly thereaftero By 1959j 
14.3% of its area was classified as cutover, and a logging operation 
was conducted in an additional 4/^' during the v/inter of 1959/60, v;hile 
this study was in progress o Merchantable timber has been removed 
from about BO/o of the plot, the remainder being an untouched area of 
coniferous and mixedwood in the northwest quarter. 

Detailed examinations were made of some timber types by 
means of ground surveys o The number and size of stems were recorded 
on tenth-acre plots placed at four chain intervals along compassed 
cruise lines. The results, converted to stems per acre, are shown in 
Table III. The presence or absence of fresh browsing on the plots 
was also noted, but because the work was done in mid-winter, it is of 
little significance, A Passmore-Hepburn type browse survey was con- 
ducted in two classes of cutover in May, I96O, the results of which 
V\rill appear in a separate report. 

P opulation changes during the period of the survey 

Table I shows the observed and estimated moose population 
on the plot during the period of the study. Because the project was 
also designed to test censusing under various conditions, counts of 
moose were sometimes poor, therefore the difference between moose 
observed and the estimated total of moose on the plot is considerable 
for some flights. The method of arriving at estimated totals is 
described in the report referred to above 

Members of the Geraldton staff engaged in moose censusing 
in the past have observed that in the area in which the plot was sit- 
uated moose seem to favour cutover areas in the early part of the 
winter, but gradually move out of them as spring approaches <> The 
writer and others have noticed similar behaviour in a large burn in 
the Cogama District, Table I shov/s that a build-up of moose in the 
area during December was followed by a decline beginning in the 
middle of February, In the 1959 hunting season (October 1 to Dec- 
ember 24) the plot was heavily hunted by road, water and on foot. 
Approximately 100 moose were killed from the §0 miles of private roads 
in the GddfiiBld Road system, and a fair estimate of the kill within 
the plot is eight or ten animals. Despite the rem^oval of several 
moose and the disturbance caused by hunters, the density exceeded one 
animal per square m.ile soon after the close of the hunting season. 
Part of the late winter reduction in numbers might be attributed to 



- 39 - 

mortality, although no dead moose, which likely would have been pin- 
pointed by raven activity, were seen from the air. It appears^ then, 
that the plot (an area of large openings intermixed with patches of 
good cover) held more appeal for moose in December and January than 
in late winter* 

The average density (observed) of moose on the plot (lo4 

square miles per moose) was nearly double that found in the District 

as a whole in the 195^-59 census* Most of the plots in that census 
were located in unlogged country. 

Vifithin the experimxental plot itself, the late winter shift 
to heavier cover is apparent in the increase in m.oose in the uncut 
northwest sector from 4% of the total observed in December and Jan- 
uary to lofo in March o 

Utilizat ion of t imber ty pe s by moose 

Table IV attempts to measure the degree of utilization of 
the various timber types as winter progressed. Observations are 
broken down into three periods of the winter, during each of which 
six census flights were made. 

C utover 

Since moose food changes with the interval of time since 
cutting was done this category is divided into three age classes, and 
the 1945-50 class is further divided into ''light'' and '"normal or 
heavy" cutting to allow for two tracts where logging was of a selective 
nature in a mature mixedwood stand. Similarly, an . area where legging 
was in progress during the experiment is also dealt with separately 
because of the effect of human activity. It is realized, however, 
that this breakdown accounts for but a few of the variables involved. 
Soil, aspect and the nature of the original forest undoubtedly play 
a large part in deciding the quality and quantity of moose food that 
will rise in the wake of logging. 

During the three census periods from 69% to 75% of the iaooso 
observed were in the 47% of the plot classified as cutover. Consider- 
ing that many more moose seen in heavier cover were resting between 
feeding forays into cutover, the preference for cutover is clearly 
dem.onstrated. Among the different cutover classes, the greatest den- 
sities (from 30 to 60 acres per animal observed) of moose were found 
in the areas logged lightly between 1945 and 1950. The make-up of 
this type (see Table III), a mixture of mature trees and shrubs such 
as mountain maple and hazel, provided both food and cover in abundance 

Among the other classes of cutover, the parts logged in 
1950-55 were favoured over the older and newer classes, although the 
ten to fifteen year-old cuts, being more extensive, revealed a larger 
total of moose, except in late winter. Perhaps after ten years a 
cutover in this area begins to lose its appeal for moose. The young- 
est class (1955-59) was heavily utilized early in the winter, but as 
snow deepened shrubs were buried, and the moose left it entirely. 
The section where logging was in progress was not used by moose. 



- 40 - 



Although tracks showed that two or three wandered through it /none 
stopped very long to feed nearer than a quarter of a mile from the 
area of activityo 

Peterson (North American Moose^ 1955) in discussing the 
effects of logging on moose range suggests that the type of logging 
most favourable to moose lies somewhere between clear cutting and 
selective cutting,. In this case, the most intensively logged areas 
were little frequented by moose, but these had been uniform stands 
of pure black spruce, and the growth that follows this kind of forest 
is usually not as abundant or as varied as grows in drier sites, so 
it would be difficult to say whether it was cover or food that was 
lacking. The selectively cut area provided an abundance of food and 
cover, again due as much to the nature of the site as to the type of 
loggingo It is safe to say, nevertheless, that in the Geraldton 
District almost any kind of logging temporarily improves the quantit^^ 
and quality of moose food, and therefore tends to increase the moose 
population, other factors permitting, 

I'-ix edwood 

Mature and over-mature mixed stands consistently revealed 
good densities of mooseo Although no ground work was done in this type, 
it is likely its composition is similar to that of the lightly logged 
type, where stem counts were conducted. The proportion of moose found 
in older mixedwood increased steadily as winter progressed,. Observ- 
ations supported the belief that over-mature mixed wood in association 
with stands of black spruce is highly important to moose in the Ger- 
aldton District 

Coniferous 

Few moose were seen in the large, solid stands of mature and 
medium aged black spruce at any time, but as winter progressed islands 
of mixedwood in the coniferous stands in the northwest sector of the 
plot revealed an increasing proportion of the moose observed^ Al- 
though these observations are credited to other types in Table IV the 
surrounding coniferous forest probably had a bearing on the presence 
of moose there <> 

Only two moose were seen in the 5% of the plot classed as 
stagnant spruce. Other types of coniferous (jackpine, jackpine and 
spruce) did not constitute large enough areas to be significant. 

Hardwood 

Only about one percent of the plot was hardwood, therefore 
analysis of its importance to moose is not possible. 

Composition of the moose herd 



A total of 323 individual observations of moose were recorded 
during the experiment (see Table V), an average of IS per flight. In 



- 41 - 



December calves were easily recognizedo As they grew larger, 
difficulty in distinguishing them was offset to a fair degree by the 
familiarity of the navigator with the various groups of moose, par- 
ticularly cows with calvesj which tended to move very little between 
censuses. Cows with calves had an average of lo2 apiece^ The prom- 
inence of calves in the herd (30/b of all animals) suggests that the 
reproduction rate in that area was high in 1959o 

The high incidence of cows with calves (3 5/3 of all adult moose) 
might reflect an unbalanced sex ratio in favour of females. More than 
two antlered moose were seen on only one occasion, the 17th, of Dec- 
ember, when four of fourteen adults carried antlers. In December 16/^ 
of all moose seen had antlers, and from January 4 to March 7, when 
the last antlers were seen, antlered animals accounted for 1% of the 
total. A shortage of bulls might be a result of the heavy hunting 
pressure which has been exerted in the vicinity of the plot in recent 
years . 

Movements of individual moose 

Snow depth during the winter was about normal^ it accumulated 
gradually to reach a peak of 26 inches on February 9, and had dropped 
back to 24 inches by April 1. Snow probably did not affect movements 
of moose abnormally. 

The frequency of the census flights made it possible to 
trace movements of many moose. In the case of adults, positive 
identification on more than few flights was difficult due to wandering 
and the forming and breaking up of groups. Cows with calves, however, 
were easy to identify and they tended to confine their wanderings to 
relatively small areas. The movements of six sets of cows and calves 
are shown on Map 11. One cow and single calf spent the entire six- 
teen week period in an area of about one square mile. The others 
were observed for shorter periods and ranged more widely. Many more 
sightings of the latter were undoubtedly made, but where there was 
doubt as to which set an observation represented, it was not included 
on Map II. 

Worth noting are the following records, not included on r-iap 
II, involving five or less sightings. 

Description Period Observed Area Occupie d 

bull, and from one 2S days 600 acres 

to four antlerless 

adults 

single adult 27 days 400 acres 

bull and antlerless 

adult 21 days 400 acres 

bull, cow and calf IS days 100 acres 



•^s 



- 42 - 

Description Per iod Observed Area Qc cuppied 

antlerless adult 14 days 80 acres 

bull and antlerless 

adult 12 da^^s 100 acres 

The group containing the calf frequented the plot margin, 
and observations ended when they left the plot areao Groups contain- 
ing adults only inevitably broke up or moved too far to be recogniz- 
able, within a montho It appears that cows with calves may spend the 
entire winter in a few hundred acres, while adults without calves 
range over many square miles « 

Summary and conclusions 

Repeated censusing of a tract of cutover land near Gerald- 
ton lent support to a belief that while moose favour such open range 
during the first half of the winter, they tend to move to heavier 
cover in February and Marcho Of a variety of classes of cutover, m.oose 
appeared to prefer the most lightly disturbed stands. A high propor- 
tion of the moose seen during the winter were calves, and a possible 
shortage of bulls was notedo Kovemients of certain individual animals 
were traced for periods of up to sixteen weeks. 

The rapidity v/ith which moose moved into the area during 
December demonstrates the attraction cutover land holds for this 
animal in the Geraldton region, and the high hunting pressure a sec- 
tion such as that serviced by Kimberly-Clark'' s Goldfield Road can 
support without depleting the moose. This pulp and paper company is 
changing the ecology of a sizable portion of the Geraldton District, 
generally in a direction favourable to moose. It mxight be argued 
that an agency which causes a wildlife resource on public lands to 
increase bears the responsibility of permitting the excess to be 
utilizedo But moose hunters can be a hazard to workers, they obstruct 
traffic and damage the property of a timber operator, and for this 
reason many companies in Ontario exclude them from their timber limit s.^ 
Kimberly-Clark, however, has been exeeedingly generous in this respect, 
permitting hunters alm.ost unrestricted use of its extensive road 
system. It is estimated that this company could have reduced the 1959 
hunter kill of moose in the Geraldton District by nearly 20^^, simply 
by closing its gates. It is important to moose management to have this 
situation continue. Kimberly-Clark and other operators who accept 
the burden of moose hunters as a courtesy or a public relations 
measure should be made aware of the full signific^ance of their action. 
And the Department in turn should miss no opportunity to inform hunt- 
ers using private roads that the privilege they enjoy is not irrevoc- 
able. 



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- 49 - 



GAKE inVENTORY IN THE U o S. S. R. 

by 
Anonymous 

Translated by V^alter Plonski 
From WILD und HUND ( in German ) 
August 21, I960, P. 350 



Abstract 

This paper discusses how game inventories are taken 
from the air in the USSR, It was concluded that this 
type of inventory was successful for moose, black 
game and fox, but almost impossible for deer and 
wolves, except in open land. 



Game inventory from the air was carried out in the USSR, 
in the vicinity of Smolensk, during February and March, 1957. 

For this purpose an aircraft of a type PO-2 has been used, 
which in four to five hours* time covered a distance of 400 km. 
During the flight some 45>000 ha, (1 hectare = 2o471 acres) were 
coveredo 

The tally has been carried out by two persons. These took 
care of typing the area., the length of visualized strips, as well as 
the species and the number of the encountered game. Later on the 
number found on a type has been prorated for the total type area. In 
this way the total inventory of the respective game has been estimated. 
The first inventory has been carried out for moose, for deer, for 
wolf, for fox, as well as for black game and Hungarian partridge. 

The speed of aircraft was between SO to 90 km. per hour. 
The flight height was from 75 to 12 5 m. 

From practical experience, it has been known that the width 
of a strip while counting moose in open forest condition was 400 m, , 
and in open land up to 700 m. Tallying wolf, fox, and deer was at 
that height possible only in open stands and open land up to 300m, 
v/idth of the strip. Less difficult was the counting of black game 
which, with aircraft approaching, usually took off some 250 m. and 
made counting possible. 

The inventory of deer from the aircraft was almost impossible. 
Comparing the results of this attempt with the regular inventory, it 
has been experienced that this method is good only for moose, black game 
and fox. 



- 50 - 

A BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF TROUT LAKE 
KENORA DISTRICT, 1959 



B 



by 
Gibson 



Abstract 

A biological survey of Trout Lake, Kenora District 
was conducted August 27-2S, 1959o This involved 
netting, collecting scale samples, measurement of 
fish and stomach analyses « Oxygen content, thermal 
conditions and water transparency of the lake were 
also testedo Conclusions reached indicated that 
Trout Lake is a lake of low fertility. Forage fish 
numbers appear to be restricted due to the scarcity 
of plankton. Although the lake trout examined showed 
a reasonably good growth rate, the absence of young 
lake trout in the gill nets may indicate a decline 
in reproduction. It is recommended that a summer 
creel census be undertaken and that no speckled 
trout be stocked at the present time since lake trout 
and pike already present would provide severe competi- 
tion for the establishment of the trout. 



Purpose of Survey 

This survey was conducted at the request of the Trout Lake 
Campers* association, which body voiced the opinion that fishing dur- 
ing the past twenty years has been poor in this body of water. They 
also requested that adult speckled trout be planted in Trout Lake 
on this account. 

Procedure of Survey 

The survey was conducted on August 27 and August 28, 1959= 
Data were collected by the District Biologist, with the assistance 
of the local Conservation Officer. 



Fish samples were collected by means of two gangs of gill 
nets, consisting of net lengths of various mesh sizes as follows? 



Gang 1 



2 l/Zf"' mesh 

2 3/4" mesh 
3** mesh 

3 1/2 mesh 
4" mesh 

Total 



75 feet 

50 feet 

125 feet 

100 feet 

100 feet 

450 feet 



- 51 - 



Gang 2-2 1/2" mesh - 60 feet 

- 3'' mesh - 90 feet 

- 3 1/2'' mesh - 60 feet 

- 6'* mesh - 60 feet 

Total 270 feet 

All mesh sizes indicated refer to extension measure. For 
the locations of the two net sets refer to the map. 

Each fish captured was measured for total length to the near- 
est one-tenth inch and weighed to the nearest half-ounce. Stomach 
contents were analyzed for individual members of carnivorous species; 
the sex of each fish taken was determined and scale samples were 
collected for subsequent age determinations, 

A Taylor maximum-minimum thermometer was used to determ.ine 
thermal conditions in the lake, and the character of the lake basin 
was established through the use of a Bendix echo sounder. 

Water transparency was established by means of a Secchi disc. 

Four seine hauls were undertaken at a sandy beach on the 
north shore of the lake to sample the small fish population. 

Physical Properties cf the Lake 

Trout Lake is a characteristic oligotrophic (poorly nourished) 
lake, situated approximately twenty miles west by northwest of the town 
of Kenora, in Gidley township. 

There is one small stream flowing into the northern portion 
of the lake which is reduced to a mere trickle during hot-weather 
periods, A small outlet flows from the southeast corner of the lake 
into Rosina Lake; this water drains through a series of lakes and 
eventually reaches the V/innipeg River system. 

The maximum length of the lake is approxim.ately 2 1/4 miles 
and its maximum width is 7/8 of a mileo A western narrow extension 
is separatea by shallov/ water (15 feet in depth) from the deeper main 
body of the lake= The maximum depth of the lake is 105 feet; its 
average depth is estimated to be 40 feet, 

A large area of the lake has a sandy bottom but the deeper 
pockets contain cumulative deposits of muck. Rocky shoals are also 
present in some parts of the lake. 

The water in Trout Lake is extremely clear, with Secchi disc 
visibility being 21 feet on August 27o 

A sharply-defined thermocline existed between 2 5 and 30 feet 
with the temperature plunging from 70^F to 54°F within this five-foot 
stratum. The histogram on page 54 illustrates the thermal structure 
of the lake on August 27, 1959« 



- 52 - 



An oxygen determination for a water sample taken at the 
60 - foot level produced evidence of 8 popom. dissolved oxygen ( sub- 
thermocline areao) 

Thirty-nine of forty-four lots in the Trout Lake Cottage 
Subdivision have now been sold. The northeast shore of the lake has 
the most concentrated development, with many cottages now present as 
well as one tourist establishment and a lakeside park administered 
by our Department o 

Biological Properties of Tro ut Lake 

A total of six species was represented in the catches from 
the two gill net sets and four seine hauls which were undertaken. 
Time did not permit additional gill net sets to be effected, hence 
adequate coverage of the lake was not realized, particularly in the 
shallower water areas. 

Six lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush ) were taken in set 
number one and seven lake trout and one northern pike ( Esox lucius ) 
were netted in set number two. The lake trout show an average rate 
of growth for the Kenora District. No coarse fish or perch were 
taken in either set. 

The predaceous fish catch is represented belows (Weights in 
pounds) 

Species Number Total VJeig:ht Average VJeight 

Lake Trout 13 31 o 7 2,4 
Northern Pike 1 5.0 



Stomach analyses o± the two carnivorous species indicate 

that, of the thirteen trout, six contained unidentifiable fish remains" 
five stomachs contained whole tullibee ( Leucichthys artedi ) ° one 
stomach contained partially desiccated insect remains, and the other 
contained crayfish remnants. The tullibee appears to be the main 
forage species utilized by the trout and average four inches in length. 
The only northern pike specimen contained a single smxall perch. 

The six lake trout caught in the one net and seven captured 
in the second indicate an average catch per unit of effort for a lake 
such as Trout Lake. The single northern pike caught is not likely a 
good index of its abundance in comparison with the lake trout. 

The four species captured in the seine hauls were as follows, 
Johnny Darter ( Boleosoma ni>yu m) , Common shiner ( Notropis cornutus), 
Spottail shiner ( Notropis hudsonius ) and Yellow perch ( Perca flavescens ). 



.•; Q 



- 53 



Species Number Caught Percentage of Total 

Johnny Darter 8? 65.9 

Common Shiner 37 2^*1 

Spottail Shiner 6 1+.^ 

Yellow Perch 2 1,4 



The average length of the Johnny darters was about 1 l/2 
inches 5 the spottail shiner and coranion shiner averaged one inch in 
lengtho 

C onclusions and Recommendations 

Trout Lake is a lake of low fertility. However, the 
thirteen lake trout specimens taken in the two gill net sets appear 
to be in reasonably good condition with regard to growth rateo The 
lack of coarse fish in the gill net sets is not surprising, due 
partly to the short duration of the study and the probability that 
they do not frequent the deeper water areas to the same degree as the 
lake trout do in August. 

Due to the abs^^nce of young lake trout in the gill net sets, 
there is a possibility that reproduction mayhave declined in Trout 
Lakeo It is felt that an inadequate number of lake trout were taken 
to verify this hypothesiso If reproduction has deteriorated, no 
opinion is ventured as to the reason. Further study of the lake is 
felt necessary to validate or disprove this theory. 

As shown by the map, the areas suitable for trout during the 
summer are somewhat restricted. Because of the low fertility of Trout 
Lake, there appears to be little in the way of plankton which provides 
food for the forage fish, and possibly their numbers are restricted 
as a result o In turn, the trout population may be confined, due to 
lack of forage fish. 

In view of the survey findings <, the following recommendations 
are mades 

1. That a summer creel census of Trout Lake be undertaken with scale 
samples taken for subsequent study. The creel census is. needed 
to determine angling pressure, species preference and yield of fish 
for future comparisons. 

2 e That adult speckled trout not be stocked in Trout Lake at the 

present tiraoc It is likely that the lake trout and pike already 
present would provide severe competition for the establishment 
of speckled trout, A more detailed chemical and biological 
analysis of Trout Lake would indicate probably that stocking of 
this lake with adult speckled trout would be impractical. 



- 54 - 
Thermal Conditions Trout Lake - August 27> 1959 
Temperaturjs - Fahrenheit 

~7[0 ^ ~ 




- 55 - 



TROUT LAKE 

Scales 4" _ 1 mile 



— 20 — Depth in Feet 




- 56 - 

RECAPTURE OF A TAGGED RANBOW TROUT FROM MCHIGAN^IN 
NORTHUMBERLAND COUNTY, MAY 23, 1959 



by 
K, Ko Irizawa 



Abstract 

The recapture of a Rainbow Trout in Haldimand Town- 
ship, Northumberland County, Ontario on May 23, 1959 
is reported. This fish which had been tagged and 
released at the Ocqueoc River, Presque Isle County, 
Michigan on May 20, 1957 had travelled approximately 
600 miles by water from the point of releasee 



A Rainbov/ Trout bearing a Michigan tag No» 1^.^12 was caught 
on May 23rd, 1959 in Shelter Valley Creek, Haldimand Township, 
Northumberland County, by Mr, J. Ainsworth, R, Ro #1, Grafton, 
Ontario, It was reportedly 26^ inches long and weighed approximately 
52 pounds at the time of capture, but these measurements have not 
been confirmed. 

Upon commxunication with the Michigan Department of Conser- 
vation, we have been advised as follows by Mr, Thomas M, Stauffer 
in charge of Sea Lamprey Research, Marquette Fisheries Research 
Station, State Fish Hatchery, Marquette, Michigan. 

"This was a hatchery-reared fish 7.5 inches long weighing 
approximately 3 ounces when it was tagged and released at the 
Ocqueoc River, Presque Isle County, on May 20, 1957« It was caught 
at a distance of about 600 miles (by water) from the point of release. 
This Rainbow Trout is one of several recovered in the Lake Ontario 
area that had been originally planted in Carp Lake River, Emmet County 
and the Ocqueoc River, Presque Isle County, 

In 1955-1959, over 100,000tagged Rainbow Trout have been 
released in Michigan tributaries of the Great Lakes « As you can no 
doubt see, these fish have ranged widely from the original planting 
site. Migrations of more than 100 miles were relatively common and 
36^ of the reported recoveries were recaptured at sites other than 
the release site. 

Although the planted Rainbow Trout showed very rapid grov/th, 
only about 3% of the planted fish were knoi-vn to be recovered by 
anglers," 

This is not the first instance of long distance travelling 
Rainbow Trout. On page 31 of the September-October I960 edition of 
Sylva is recorded a Rainbow Trout frora the same waters having been 
caught in the Bay of Quint e. 



- ")! - 

HILL^S LAKE HATCHERY 

EXPERIMNT #g SUPPLEMNT - 
FISH TRANSPORTATION METHODS 

by 
N. Do Patrick 

Abstract 

Experimental work on fish shipping methods is continuing 
at Hill^s Lake Hatchery, and this report covers an 
attempt to increase truck capacity by using a buffer 
to stabilize water acidityo The experiment was a fail- 
ure because the fish were not crowded enough in spite 
of the fact that some tanks were carrying well over 
twice the "normal'* load. It is obvious that our present 
truck shipment method (at least from Hill's Lake) is 
inefficient and require^- study-. 



Introduction 

Most of the planning and experimental work with buffers, 
plastic bags and anaesthetic done to date has been aimed at increasing 
aircraft payload. (Macins I960, Patrick 19^) *•■ ^&r^ is, however, a 
possibility that the application of these methods to conventional truck 
shipping techniques may also increase payload, and for this reason, the 
present experiment was undertaken. We have already applied the plastic 
bag method to shipments by car, using a portable soft-drink "cooler" 
with considerable success^ There is every reason to believe that proper 
use of drugged water for shipping fish will make the large hatchery truck 
obsolete as far as fish plantings are concerned, a small pick-up truck 
being adequate to do most planting work. Transferring large quantities 
of fish from one hatchery to another would probably still require a 
large truck but fewer trips would be required = 

Ob ject ive 

To assesstruck carrying capacity and study the effect of 
buffering the v/ater. 

Method 

The experiment was carried out with a shipment of two-year 
old speckled trout from Hill's Lake Hatchery that were sent to the 
Hornepayne Road area in Kapuskasing District. 

The normal method of shipping involves a three-ton truck 
loaded with eight steel v/ater tanks. These tanks are 36" square and 
about 30" deep with baffles around the top edge to prevent water loss 
from splashing. They are equipped with wooden lids with an ice pan in 
each lid. Each tank is fed oxygen from a system utilizing compressed 
oxygen fed into the water through gas diffuser stones. 

* See Fish and V/ildlife Mgt „ Rept. No. 54, I960. 



- 5S 

Each tank is filled to about 14" depth with water, giving 
a total volume per tank of approximately 65 gallons. The load for a 
trip such as this (10 hours at least) was estimated by the hatchery 
staff at 250 two-year old fish per tank. This gives a loading of 3.^ 
fish or 0.69 lbs." per gallon, 45 lbs. of fish per tank - a total truck- 
load of 2,000 fish weighing some 364 lbs. These are, obviously, large, 
'■'legal size" fish, and this loading was considered to be the maximum 
that could safely be carried on this particular planting. 

In order to assess the effectiveness of the buffer, the 
tanks were set up in four pairs, one of each pair filled with normal 
water and the other filled with buffered waterc Four different loads 
were placed in the four pairs of tanks so that loads of 4 fish/gallon, 
6 fish/gallon, S fish/gallon and 10 fish/gallon were carried. The heav- 
iest load carried some 2^ timesthe -'normal" load» 

Each tank in the buffered series contained 65 grams of 
tris-buffer, giving a dosage rate of 1 gram, per gallon* 

Loading of the fish started at 4o00 a.m. on June 14th, 
i960, and the truck left the hatchery at 5s00 a.m. Periodic checks of 
fish condition, pH and temxperature v;ere made throughout the trip. A 
fresh supply of ice was obtained at 10,30 a.m. in Kapuskasing, but by 
2s 15 p.m. the ice supply was gone and the supply of oxygen was almost 
exhausted. The fish appeared to be suffering in all tanks by 2:30 p.m. 
and so planting was carried out. As fish showed signs of distress from 
oxygen lack after the oxygen supply ran out, the tank water was hand 
aerated using a pail. 

Observations 

Records of pH and temperature taken during the trip are 
recorded in Table I, No mortality was observed, but fish were obviously 
suffering in all tanks by the time planting was started and intensity 
of sufferiDg varied with the number of fish in each tank. Heavily 
loaded tanks showed suffering fish as soon as the ox^'-gen supply ran out 
and hand aerating of the tank water was necessary to keep the fish alive. 
The amount of aeration required varied also with the number of fish in 
each tank and the increase in water temperature from Tank ifl to Tank 
#S (recorded at 3=30 p.m.) indicates this since splashing the water 
through the warm air tended to increase water temperature. There was 
no noticeable difference between the condition of fish in normal water 
and buffered water, but it was observed that the buffered water becatae 
dirty from fish excrement much sooner than the normal water. 

Water in all tanks became extremxely dirty from fish excre- 
ment so that by 5o30 a.m., it was difficult to observe fish accurately 
on the bottom of the tanks. These fish had been starved for a day 
prior to shipping, but their last feeding was of meat - which is 
digested slowly. 

No record of initial pH of the water is available since 
it was beyond the range of the pH kits in the case of buffered water 
(over 8.8) and in any event, there was insufficient daylight to obtain 
readings. The normal hatchery water has a pH of 8.3 and I/4 gram 



- 59 - 



buffer per gallon raises the pH beyond SoB, 
the pH dropped to around S»0 by 6;;^5 aora. 



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- 60 - 

The tanks with buffered water showed a consistently higher 
pH throughout the trip, although neither series showed what could 
be termed drastic pH change. There does not appear to be any obvious 
effect of fish numbers on the pH change in either series of tanks. 
That is, 260 fish in buffered water showed the same and pH as did 
650 fish in the same water. 

Conclusions 

It is not possible to determine any beneficial effect of 
buffering the water on this particular shipment. It is, however, 
obvious that the original shipment planned was far below capacity 
of the shipping equipment* 

This conclusion confirms casual observation of other routine 
shipments. There is no doubt in the writer^ s mind that the present 
shipping methods in use at Hill^s Lake are not being utilized to 
capacity. This means that a considerable economy in shipping costs 
is possible if the maximum carrying capacity can be determined and 
utilized. 

There is, of course, a very real possibility that this 
situation exists in the operation of other Provincial Hatcheries, 
and perhaps in them all, and if so, corrective measures must be 
taken. 

R ecommendation 

It is recommended that standard fish shipping methods be 
investigated with a view to reducing shipping costs. 

References 

Currier, J. P. - Personal Communications - 1959 & I960. 

^.acins, V. I96O - Fisheries Project (l) 

Unpublished Manuscript - Jan » 

LcFarland, Vi[„ N, and Kenneth S. Morris, 195^ - The Control of pH 

by Buffers in Fish Transport. Calif. Fish and Game 
k-Uk- 291 - 310 Oct. 

Patrick, II, Do, I960 - Hill's Lake Hatchery Experiment ffS. 

Fish and Wildlife Mgt, Report No. 54, Nov. 1960. 



DEPT LANDS AND FOREST 
RECEIVED 

p;,5. 24 lao. 

KEMPTVILLE